This archaeological-historical study focuses on the urban sanitation infrastructure of the 13th to 18th century. To this end four Dutch towns in coastal provinces Alkmaar, Haarlem, Leiden and Dordrechtand three towns from inland provinces Den Bosch, Deventer and Amersfoort were investigated.
However, after a attack by the English pirate Robert Searle during which the town of St. Augustine was burned to the ground, wooden forts were deemed inadequate, and MarianaQueen Regent of Spainapproved the construction of a masonry fortification to protect the city. The Castillo is a masonry star fort made of a stone called coquina Spanish for "small shells"which consists of ancient shells that have bonded together to form a sedimentary rock similar to limestone.
Native Americans from Spain's nearby missions did most of the labor, with additional skilled workers brought in from HavanaCuba. The coquina was quarried from the 'King's Quarry' on Anastasia Island in what is today Anastasia State Park across Matanzas Bay from the Castillo, and ferried across to the Van de bult thesis site.
Construction began on October 2, and lasted twenty-three years, with completion in To the left of center is the sallyport —the only entrance to the fort, reached via drawbridge from the ravelinwhich is located within the moat.
On the two landward sides a large glacis was constructed which would force any attackers to advance upward toward the fort's cannon and allow the cannon shot to proceed downslope for greater efficiency in hitting multiple targets. Immediately surrounding the fort was a moat which was usually kept dry, but that could be flooded with seawater to a depth of about a foot in case of attack by land.
Infantry embrasures were also built into the walls below the level of the terreplein for the deployment of muskets by the fort's defenders.
It was through one of these embrasures that twenty Seminoles held as prisoners would escape in First English siege[ edit ] Main article: As it was just two days' sail from St.
Augustine, the English settlement and encroachment of English traders into Spanish territory spurred the Spanish in their construction of a fort. Augustine early in Queen Anne's War. Augustine in November The small English cannon had little effect on the walls of the fort, because the coquina was very effective at absorbing the impact of the shells.
Augustine was destroyed, in part by the Spanish and in part by the English, as a result of the siege. Beginning inunder the supervision of Spanish engineer Pedro Ruiz de Olanothe interior of the fort was redesigned and rebuilt. Interior rooms were made deeper, and vaulted ceilings replaced the original wooden ones.
The vaulted ceilings allowed for better protection from bombardments and allowed for cannon to be placed along the gun deck, not just at the corner bastions.
Second British Siege[ edit ] Main article: Augustine The tallest watchtower at the fort is at the corner facing the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean Spain and Britain were rivals in Europe, and since the two countries had both founded empires in the New World, their rivalry continued there as well.
Suspecting that the British had been trading illegally with Spanish colonies which was forbidden by both Spain and Britainthe Spanish searched the ship. A fight broke out between the Spanish and British sailors. In the skirmish, Jenkins had his ear cut off by a Spanish officer, who picked it up and said "Take this to your king and tell him that if he were here I would serve him in the same manner!
The war was called the War of Jenkins' Ear. In JuneOglethorpe and an English fleet of seven ships appeared off St. As in the siege, three hundred soldiers and 1, residents found refuge within the Castillo's walls. For 27 days the British bombarded the Castillo and St.
Realizing his cannon were not affecting the Castillo's walls, Oglethorpe decided to starve the people of St. Augustine by blockading the inlet at the Matanzas River and all roads into St. However, some supplies were able to reach the city via the river, and with morale and supplies low for the English forces, Oglethorpe had to retreat.
In order to protect the city from future blockades and sieges, the Spanish built Fort Matanzas to guard the river, which could be used as a rear entrance to avoid St. Augustine's primary defense system.by Roos van Oosten, Epko Bult, Rica Annaert, Arno Verhoeven, Mirjam Kars, and M.
Adrian Roxburgh This book is a celebration of the work of prof.
Dr. Frans Theuws and was published in conjunction with the symposium held at the University of Leiden, June 29, The ConcepTueelcommittee is the editor and designer of the ConcepTueel, the professional journal that is published five times per year.
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Wytze Stellingwerf, Leiden University, Archaeology Department, Alumnus. Studies Archaeology, Medieval Archaeology, and Post-Medieval Archaeology. I am an archeologist and ceramics and glass specialist of the Medieval and Post-Medieval period in the.
"Dr. Roos van Oosten began her academic career studying medieval history after which she began her archaeological degree that culminated in a thesis on urban archaeology.
Her PhD dissertation at the University of Groningen focused on sanitation management, which she successfully defended in Author: Roos van Oosten.
Mosca A. C. van de Velde F. Bult J. H. F. van Boekel M. A. J. S. & Stieger M. Enhancement of sweetness intensity in gels by inhomogeneous distribution of sucrose Food Quality and PreferenceTitle: Visitor Researcher at Wageningen .