The cell cycle and cancer worksheet

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The cell cycle and cancer worksheet

Early symptoms[ edit ] Site of ovarian cancer Early signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may be absent or subtle.

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In most cases, symptoms exist for several months before being recognized and diagnosed. Symptoms can vary based on the subtype. The typical symptoms of an LMP tumor can include abdominal distension or pelvic pain. Particularly large masses tend to be benign or borderline.

Symptoms can be caused by a mass pressing on the other abdominopelvic organs or from metastases. Other common symptoms include hirsutismabdominal pain, virilizationand an adnexal mass. Sex cord-stromal tumors in prepubertal children may be manifested by early puberty ; abdominal pain and distension are also common.

Adolescents with sex cord-stromal tumors may experience amenorrhea. As the cancer becomes more advanced, it can cause an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. If the malignancy has not been diagnosed by the time it causes ascites, it is typically diagnosed shortly thereafter.

Thus not having children is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, likely because ovulation is suppressed via pregnancy. During ovulation, cells are constantly stimulated to divide while ovulatory cycles continue. Therefore, people who have not borne children are at twice the risk of ovarian cancer than those who have.

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A longer period of ovulation caused by early first menstruation and late menopause is also a risk factor. The risk of developing ovarian cancer is reduced in women who have had tubal ligation colloquially known as having one's "tubes tied"both ovaries removed, or hysterectomy an operation in which the uterus, and sometimes the cervix, is removed.

This may be due to shedding of precancerous cells during pregnancy but the cause remains unclear. The association has not been confirmed in a large-scale study, [19] [26] but notable studies including the Million Women Study have supported this link. Postmenopausal HRT with combined estrogen and progesterone may increase contemporaneous risk if used for over 5 years, but this risk returns to normal after cessation of therapy.

Higher doses of estrogen increase this risk. Endometriosis is associated with clear-cell and endometrioid subtypes, low-grade serous tumors, stage I and II tumors, grade 1 tumors, and lower mortality. This risk is also relevant in those who are both obese and have never used HRT. A similar association with ovarian cancer appears in taller people.

The cell cycle and cancer worksheet

Hereditary breast—ovarian cancer syndrome People with ovarian or breast cancer in a pedigree chart of a family A family history of ovarian cancer is a risk factor for ovarian cancer.

Only one allele need be mutated to place a person at high risk. The gene can be inherited through either the maternal or paternal line, but has variable penetrance. Seven of women with two or more relatives with ovarian cancer will eventually get ovarian cancer. There is mixed evidence regarding the effect of red meat and processed meat in ovarian cancer.

The risk is not negated by regular exercise, though it is lowered. Those over 80 are at slightly lower risk.About This Quiz & Worksheet. This quiz and corresponding worksheet help you gauge your understanding of ectopic pregnancy along with the causes and treatments of this condition.

About This Quiz & Worksheet. This quiz and corresponding worksheet help you gauge your understanding of ectopic pregnancy along with the causes and treatments of this condition. Events during Mitosis.

Interphase: Cells may appear inactive during this stage, but they are quite the is the longest period of the complete cell cycle during which DNA replicates, the centrioles divide, and proteins are actively produced. The BIOTECH Project has worked with over , students across Arizona in the past six years.

The cell cycle and cancer worksheet

Hundreds of teachers have brought engaging hands-on biotechnology activities to their classroom through professional development workshops, classroom visits and material and equipment loans. During development from stem to fully differentiated, cells in the body alternately divide (mitosis) and "appear" to be resting (interphase).

This sequence of activities exhibited by cells is called the cell cycle.

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Gap 0 (G0): There are times when a cell will leave the cycle and quit may be a temporary resting period or more permanent. An example of the latter is a cell that has reached an end stage of development and will no longer divide (e.g.


The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Cancer | HHMI BioInteractive