Organismic trait designed to solve an ancestral problem s. Shows complexity, special "design", functionality Adaptation that has been "re-purposed" to solve a different adaptive problem. Williams suggested that an "adaptation is a special and onerous concept that should only be used where it is really necessary.
The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision.
Thus all persons practice philosophy whether they know it or not. Autocosmic Answers What is existing? Reality consists ultimately of matter and energy and their fundamentally lawlike and unwilled relations in space-time. To exist is to have a causal relationship with the rest of the universe.
The universe is the maximal set of circumstances that includes this statement and no subset of which is causally unrelated to the remainder. Humans do not know why the universe exists or what it is for.
The universe operates without supernatural intervention and according to lawlike regularities that can be understood through empirical investigation and without special intuition. Humans have no credible evidence of any supernatural agency or unity.
Humans have no credible evidence that any minds enjoy eternal existence. Knowledge is justified true belief. Truth is logical and parsimonious consistency with evidence and with other truth.
Meaning is the context-sensitive connotation ultimately established by relevant denotation and use. All synthetic propositions including this one can only be known from experience and are subject to doubt.
A synthetic statement is propositionally meaningless if it is in principle neither falsifiable nor verifiable. A mind is any volition al conscious faculty for perception and cognition. Minds and ideas consist ultimately of matter.
Mental states are functional states consisting of causal relations among components for processing information. Consciousness is awareness of self and environment. Intelligence is the ability to make, test, and apply inductions about perceptions of self and world.
There are no forms of reasoning or kinds of knowledge that are in principle inaccessible to regular intelligence. As autonomous living intellects, we persons value intelligence and life and the autonomy they need to flourish. A person is any intelligen t being with significant volitional control over how it affects other beings.
All persons have the right to life and liberty. All beings have the right not to suffer torture or extinction. Liberty is volition in the absence of aggression.
Coercion is compulsion of one person by another through force or threat of aggression. Justice is the minimization, reversal and punishment of aggression. The purpose of the state is to effect justice, provide aid and sustenance to persons in mortal danger, protect species in danger of extinction, and prevent torture.
Autocosmology is a synthesis of metaphysical naturalismontological materialismepistemological empiricism and positivismmental functionalismtheological atheismaxiological extropianismpolitical libertarianismeconomic capitalismconstitutional federalismbiological evolutionismevolutionary psychology, and technological optimism.
Autocosmology is the worldview asserted by this text. Faith is belief based on revelation and exempt from doubt. Mysticism is belief based on private and direct experience of ultimate reality. Skepticism is belief that is always subject to doubt and justified through objective verification.
Cynicism is the absence of belief. Faith is the most common mode of belief in the Western world, where the Abrahamic religions are prevalent. Mysticism is the most common mode of belief in the Eastern world.
Skepticism is practiced worldwide with varying amounts of rigor by the minority of thinkers who have been influenced more by science than by tradition. Cynicism too is practiced by a worldwide minority, often as a simplistic reaction to the rigidity of faith, the emptiness of mysticism, or the relativism of skepticism.
A skeptic believes what he sees. A mystic believes what he feels. A fideist believes what he hears. A cynic believes nothing.Aug 16, · Neurotransmitters and Behavior Identify two to three primary neurotransmitters and discuss their role in behavior.
According to McGraw-Hill (), neurotransmitters are the chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite, and sometimes the cell body, of a receiving neuron. B.A. Major Program in Psychology.
The Bachelor of Arts in psychology is a social science major requiring 13 courses (approximately 49 credit hours) in psychology as described below.
The concept of prosocial behavior and its psychological foundations are extremely important in furthering research and practice in a number of fields, including . An optometrist is an independent primary healthcare provider for the eye.
Optometrists examine, diagnose, treat, and manage diseases, injuries, and disorders of the visual system, the eye, and associated structures as well as identify related systemic conditions affecting the eye.
Psychology is the scientific study of thought, behavior, and experience. Many people associate psychology with psychological therapy and the practice of clinical psychology.
There are also many other important areas of scientific psychology, such as cognitive, developmental, industrial/organizational, and social psychology.
Psychology is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it might affect behavior. Understand the differences between a psychologist and a psychiatrist, and learn how they often work together to.