Nuclear explosions produce air-blast effects similar to those produced by conventional explosives. The shock wave can directly injure humans by rupturing eardrums or lungs or by hurling people at high speed, but most casualties occur because of collapsing structures and flying debris.
Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially affect health.
Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals, radiation and some biological agents, and the effects often indirect on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological, social and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport.
It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behaviour not related to environment, as well as behaviour related to the social and cultural environment, as well as genetics.
They also carry out that role by promoting the improvement of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviors. They also have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy areas.
Researchers and policy-makers also play important roles in how environmental health is practiced in the field. In many European countries, physicians and veterinarians are involved in environmental health.
The environmental health profession had its modern-day roots in the sanitary and public health movement of the United Kingdom. This was epitomized by Sir Edwin Chadwickwho was instrumental in the repeal of the poor lawsand in was the founding president of the Association of Public Sanitary Inspectors, now called the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health.
Each of these disciplines contributes different information to describe problems and solutions in environmental health, but there is some overlap among them.
Environmental epidemiology studies the relationship between environmental exposures including exposure to chemicals, radiation, microbiological agents, etc. Observational studies, which simply observe exposures that people have already experienced, are common in environmental epidemiology because humans cannot ethically be exposed to agents that are known or suspected to cause disease.
While the inability to use experimental study designs is a limitation of environmental epidemiology, this discipline directly observes effects on human health rather than estimating effects from animal studies.
Toxicology has the advantage of being able to conduct randomized controlled trials and other experimental studies because they can use animal subjects. However there are many differences in animal and human biology, and there can be a lot of uncertainty when interpreting the results of animal studies for their implications for human health.
Exposure science can be used to support environmental epidemiology by better describing environmental exposures that may lead to a particular health outcome,identify common exposures whose health outcomes may be better understood through a toxicology study, or can be used in a risk assessment to determine whether current levels of exposure might exceed recommended levels.
Exposure science has the advantage of being able to very accurately quantify exposures to specific chemicals, but it does not generate any information about health outcomes like environmental epidemiology or toxicology. This can in turn be used to develop and implement environmental health policy that, for example, regulates chemical emissions, or imposes standards for proper sanitation.
Concerns[ edit ] This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. January Environmental health addresses all human-health-related aspects of the natural environment and the built environment.
Environmental health concerns include:Environmental pollution has a cumulative effect on the health of not just humans, but every living being. Pollution mainly is categorised as air, water, noise and land pollution.
The severity and extent of health effects associated with extreme events depend on the physical impacts of the extreme events themselves as well as the unique human, societal, and environmental circumstances at the time and place where events occur. Human Health and the Environment Introduction For example, the effects of environmental degradation on human health can range from death caused by cancer due to air pollution to psychological problems resulting from noise.
This chapter. WHO fact sheet on dioxins and their effects on human health: includes key facts, definition, sources, contamination incidents, control, reduction of risk, WHO response. UN Environment and WHO agree to major collaboration on environmental health risks 10 January Health and Environmental Effects of Particulate Matter (PM) Health Effects.
The size of particles is directly linked to their potential for causing health problems. Small particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter pose the greatest problems, because they can get deep into your lungs, and some may even get into your bloodstream.
How are Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments Developed? Human Health and Environmental Assessments: Risk assessment is the scientific process of evaluating the potential for adverse health or ecological impacts resulting from exposure to .