The Renaissance was a period of time from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. This era bridged the time between the Middle Ages and modern times. The word "Renaissance" means "rebirth".
A Brief Introduction to the History of Bunraku by Matthew Johnson Bunraku is the name commonly used for ningyo-joruri, literally puppets and storytelling. This simple name not only describes a puppet performance, but also alludes to its predecessors. There was a long tradition of travelling storytellers who used biwa as their accompaniment.
There were also travelling puppeteers. When these two art forms were joined is not exactly clear, but the beginning of what is now called Bunraku waswhen Takemoto Gidayu set up his own theater in Osaka. Takemoto Gidayu began his career as a narrator under some of the most acclaimed masters of the period in Kyoto.
He soon became famous in his own right, and was known for intimite story telling that spoke the hearts of the characters.
In he decided to branch out and form his own theater, and was helped in his effort by Chikamatsu Monzaemon, the greatest playwright in Japanese history, and Takeda Izumo, a famous theater owner and manager. Until this time, Chikamatu Monzaemon's work had mostly been in the Kabuki theater, working with Sakata Tojuro, the actor who created the wagoto, or soft style for which Kansai Kabuki became known.
Drawn to Bunraku by Gidayu, Chikamatsu worked as a bridge between old-style joruri and Bunraku. While often keeping much of the fantasy of older tales, Chikamatsu's works are distinct for adding human elements.
His drama's usually revolved around the confucian concepts of the importance of loyalty to one's feudal lord, family, etc. Chikamatsu's other great accomplishment was the creation of sewamonoor plays about the merchant class.
Greatly received in Osaka, a commercial town, a majority of these sewamono were about shinju, or love suicides. By trying the revolutionary idea of taking a recent event, that of the death of a courtesan and her lover, and dramatizing it into the play Sonezaki Shinju, Chikamatsu captured the imagination of the city.
The play spawned not only copies, but influenced others to actually commit double suicide in the hope that their love would live on forever. In contrast to the historical plays mentioned above, here the conflict arose from the characters choosing personal feelings over loyalty.
If Gidayu and Chikamatsu provided the art for Bunraku, Takeda Izumo provided the money to start and technical knowhow. Takeda already ran widely popular karakuri puppet theaters and was a powerful political figure among the merchant class.
Even when plays made money, proper management was necessary to keep the theater financially stable, and the Takeda family had made its fortune as producers.
Takeda's other contributions to Bunraku are the effects to make the puppets more life like and to add spectacle to the theater. Both of these came from his experience in the Karakuri puppet theater.
Those effects that worked in the karakuri theater he quickly introduced to Bunraku, including technical developments for the puppets, which are discussed below, and spectacular sets.
InWakatayu left the Takemoto-za and began the Toyotake-za with the lead playwright Ki no Kaion. It was the competition between these two theaters that led to the high level of art achieved in Bunraku. Though the narrators of the Toyotake-za created their own style, romantic and feminine compared to the masculine power that was prominent at the Takemoto-za, their narration is still considered to be in the Gidayu style.
The death of Chikamatsu and Ki brought the end of an era, but was also the beginning of the golden age of Bunraku.
The situation was such that it led one writer to comment that it was like there was no Kabuki. Though this observation must be taken with a grain of salt Osaka at the time had three thriving Kabuki theaters but only two Bunraku theatersit shows that the publics interest was captured more by Bunraku, thus indicating that it was the puppet theater in which the bulk of creativity and freshness was concentrated.
While the competition between the two theaters helped produce this state, the interplay between Bunraku and Kabuki cannot be ignored. Inspired by the success in Bunraku, Kabuki increasingly adapted plays written for the puppets.
Along with the plays, the acting styles used in these plays mimicked the movements of the puppets, adding to the already stylized reparatory. Bunraku also looked to Kabuki for innovation.
While new plays were mostly adaptations of earlier Chikamatsu and Ki works, the influence of Kabuki in the scale of the plays is clear. And while Kabuki actors mimicked the movements of puppets, puppeteers strived for realism. This led to a number of innovations, including moving eyes, eyebrows, etc, but the biggest step in this direction was the use of three puppeteers to control one puppet: The first time this method was used was in the play Kuzu no ha, first performed in This golden period reached its height in the 's.
There had been a trend since the death of Chikamatsu and Ki no Kaion to have plays written by a group of playwrights. At the beginning of this period, the 's, these groups were led by Namiki Sosuke at the Toyotake-za and Bun Kodo at the Takemoto-za.
Inthough, Namiki Sosuke moved to the Takemoto-za and along with Takeda Izumo and Miyoshi Shoroku, they produced what are considered to be the three greatest classics in both Bunraku and Kabuki:Introduction: what was the Renaissance?, Renaissance in Europe, Renaissance and Reformation, SOSE: History, Year 8, QLD Introduction The period of European history referred to as the Renaissance was a time of great social and cultural change in Europe.
Today there are many types of Protestant Churches. For example, Baptist is currently the largest denomination in the United States but there are many dozens more.
How did this happen? Where did they all begin? To understand the Protestant Reform movement, we need to go back in history . Main Renaissance Page. Italy Part One.
Italy Part Two. Northern Renaissance: The Italian Renaissance: Part One, The Background. Book: Ancient Times. Renaissance is a French word meaning “rebirth.” It refers to a period in European civilization that was marked by a revival of Classical learning and wisdom after a long period .
by the Renaissance, they will reply that it was the revolution effected in architecture, painting, and sculpture by the recovery of antique monuments. Students of literature, philosophy, and theology see in the Renaissance that.
The Renaissance period: – Literature and the age. In a tradition of literature remarkable for its exacting and brilliant achievements, the Elizabethan and early Stuart periods have been said to represent the most brilliant century of all.
|Renaissance art - Wikipedia||English literature of his reign as James I, from tois properly called Jacobean. These years produced a gallery of authors of genius, some of whom have never been surpassed, and conferred on scores of lesser talents the enviable ability to write with fluency, imagination, and verve.|
|The Protestant Reformation||Beginning And Progress Of The Renaissance Beginning And Progress Of The Renaissance Fourteenth To Sixteenth Century The new birth of resurrection known as the "Renaissance" is usually considered to have begun in Italy in the fourteenth century, though some writers would date its origin from the reign of Frederick II, ; and by this Prince - the most enlightened man of his age - it was at least anticipated.|
|Toward the High Renaissance, an introduction (article) | Khan Academy||Generally speaking, the Renaissance spanned from the 14th to the 16th centuries, spreading across Europe from its birthplace in Italy. During the Middle Ages, Italy was not the unified country that it is today.|
|ADDITIONAL MEDIA||In Italy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries thinkers and artists began to view the thousand years that had elapsed since the fall of Rome as the "Dark Ages" - a time of stagnation and ignorance - in contrast to their own age which appeared to them wise and beautiful. They exuberantly proclaimed that they were participating in an intellectual and aesthetic revolution sparked by the "rebirth" renaissance of the values and forms of classical antiquity.|
|322 BC to 235 AD||Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.|
(The reign of Elizabeth I began in and ended with her death in ; she was succeeded by the Stuart king James VI of Scotland, who took the.